Category Archives: Woodenergy and Cleantech

Recent progress in WP5 Case Studies

As the Wood Energy and Cleantech project is nearing to its completion time, most of the planned activities and reports are being finalized.

In the project seminar in Jäneda, Estonia (which was held just last week 12.09…14.09) the final results of the Case Studies were presented. In total, four Case Studies were prepared: two in Latvia and one in Estonia and Sweden. A fifth Case Study of a region in Estonia is expected to be finalized before the final conference. All of the case studies focus on finding out the benefits for the region from the utilization of wood fuels.

The Estonian Case Study of district heating in the town of Elva was prepared in order to describe one of the most successful small-town district heating system in Estonia. All of the main boiler houses of the town use woodchips for producing heat. What is more, almost all of the district heating pipeline has been replaced. As a result a 4800 tonne reduction in CO2 emissions was reached. Almost 60 % of the specific investments was received from different subsidisation mechanisms.

In addition to describing the current situation, the Case Study reports analyse the future of the region. It was calculated, that even in case of substantial reduction in heat demand, the management of the district heating system will be feasible. Should the town choose to build a CHP unit, a further 2450 tonne reduction in CO2 emissions would be reached due to electricity production from renewable sources.

The Case Study of the region of Kisa in Sweden was designed to describe the benefits of energy cooperation between the industries and the district heating network. By utilizing the energy system optimisation model MODEST, possibilities and benefits of using energy cooperation between the district heating network and the saw and paper mills that are situated nearby. If the region would utilize the waste heat from the saw and paper mills, the region could reduce global CO2 emissions by 28000 tonne per year due to an increase in the biomass for heat production. The economic benefits for the industries and district heating system were calculated to be about 34 MSEK/year.

In Latvia, 2 Case Studies were compiled in order to analyse the current situation and possible future activities in the relevant regions.
For the Beverina region, it was discovered that since the measured energy consumption varies too much (and therefore the data is not probably correct), an energy strategy needs to be done for the region to plan for the refurbishment of the boiler houses and the DH network. A total of three scenarios were created, which covered aspects from hiring an energy manager to installation of new boiler houses and switching to localized heating sysem.

In case of Aluksne town in Latvia, an evaluation of the two possible alternatives for the region, was prepared. The two alternatives were: connection of 4 out of 5 district heating networks and continuing as a decentralised district heating system with 5 boiler houses. It was concluded, that the currently planned investment project (centralised district heating system) is not sustainable. The best solution in this case would be a symbiosis of centralised and decentralized district heating system.

All of the presentations and final reports of the Case Studies will be made public here

Jaanus Uiga

Wood Energy and Cleantech projekti raames on valminud Elva linna kaugküttevõrgu juhtumiuuring

Uuring teostati kahes osas. Tehniliste aspektide analüüs ning tulevikustsenaariumite koostamine teostati Eesti Maaülikooli poolsete projektipartnerite poolt. Keskkonna- ja majandusanalüüs valmis Hendrikson & Co juhtimisel.

Mõlemad uuringu osad on kätte saadavad nii inglise kui ka eesti keeles siit

Jaanus Uiga

On the 15-17 May an Ash recycling benchmarking was held in Växjö

Stakeholders and scientists from Sweden, Estonia and Latvia were invited to share their knowledge and learn about new developments in ash recycling

The benchmarking started with Johan Palm giving an overview about the whole project. It turned out, that in Latvia, a large amount of DH is produced by natural gas, whereas Sweden builds also some Liquid Natural Gas terminals to meet the energy needs for south Sweden, but views wood fuels as more compatible at the moment.

According to Hillevi Erikson, using ash as the only fertilizer is a bit problematic at the moment as with ash you don’t bring back nitrogen to the forest. Therefore there is a loss of nitrogen in the life cycle. The ash has a too high Bromide concentration in some cases as well.

Eva Ring, Researcher in SkogForsk. said that research has shown that the ash does not affect the soil in such a big amount as thought. The rain water, that comes in contact with ash does not reach the the water bodies of rivers and lakes directly, it flows through the soil. No extended effect period on tree growth. The soil acts as a filter for the water.

Katri Ots from the EULS gave an overview about the forestation of cut-away peat lands and about the effect of wood ash as fertilizer. The results of a research of Tartu boiler house wood ash are shown in the diagram above.

The Linneaus University, that is located in Växjo was represented by Tommy Claesson. He made a presentation about ash samples that have 60% unburned content; therefore it is cycled several times through the furnace. 60% sludge and 40% dry ash makes a nice product as fertilizer. Potassium has a low content in this material, sodium has a high content.

Before the benchmarking group was taken to the ash storage site for getting a practical view of the recycling process, Lars Strand showed the practical issues in ash spreading while Karina Pedersen presented the economical side.

Why making an energy plan?

In Sweden, It is obligatory to make an energy plan for the region, thereby giving a good input for related energy decisions. E.g. in Växjö, small scale energy applications are promoted to show to visitors that their city is innovative and it’s planning policy is “green”. The main problem yet to solve in becoming a CO2 free community is the transport. At the moment the main renewable transport fuel is ethanol.

On the second day of the benchmarking, field visits to the ash recycling sites were made.

The spreading of ash in practice was shown in the forest of Per Gyllensvärd. The equipment shown in the picture above is used for ash spreading in the summer time and for transporting wood in the winter time, thereby reducing the payback time. The spreading process is controlled by a computer that in order to ensure an even spreading of the ash. In the woods, a 20 m radius can be covered, whereas in the in a field a radius of 50 m is possible.

Swedish rural affairs minister:  Forest gives an important share of the swedish export and its also important for recreational activities. Sweden had an forestry based heating energy system hundred jears ago. Then it got to more imported fossil fuels.

Since 1990 the co emission has decreased and in the meantime the economi has increased by 51%. The first swedish forest act from 1903 was concentrated on reforestation. The wood resource of Sweden is more than doubled in the years 1920-2000

After meeting the Swedish Minister of Rural Affairs, final conclusions of the event were made:

Steps for ash recycling are:

  • Lobbying
  • Estimating the limits for the ash concentration and heavy metals
  • Researching about the long-term influence, testing the theories
  • The swedes learned that the granulation of ash is unneccessary

Alo Allik & Jaanus Uiga

Recent Progress in Case Studies of WP 5

In 25.04 and 26.04 a workshop of WP 5 was held in the town of Elva, the subject of the Estonian Case Study. The second day of the workshop concentrated on the Case Studies and their progress.

As it turned out, all the respective PP-s had chosen very different regions and methods for the Study. For Estonia, a best practice example, the town of Elva, was chosen, whereas Latvian PP-s decided to help in solving the problems of Alūksne district heating and Beverina region heating systems. While Ekodoma, the company responsible for the two Case Studies conducted in Latvia and Estonian University of Life Sciences in cooperation with Hendrikson & Co mainly use spreadsheet-based calculations for system analysis, the PP-s from Sweden decided to use an energy system optimisation model called MODEST for getting the results. At least we in the University of Life Sciences will be looking forward to the results of all the regions.

As follows, a short overview of the Case Study of the District Heating in Elva will be given.

The Case Study of Elva has reached it’s final stage, as all the inputs for the environmental and economical calculations have been given. The final report will be finalized in May, as there might be a need for small improvements to be made. The results show that thanks to making an investment of 2,26 MEUR into the renovation of all the boiler houses and district heating pipelines, the town has been able to keep the prices of heat energy reasonably low (56,56 €/MWh + VAT), while reducing the losses of DH network to 10%, which considering a 40% heat energy reduction in housing and public sector and 10% reduction in industry and services sector by 2025, will still only be 13% – way below the requirement of 15% by 2017.

Although the economical analysis of the future scenarios, which were made for analysing different scenarios for constructing a CHP plant to Elva, is yet to be completed, the environmental report is nearly done and will show, how much a transition from fossil fuels (in this case shale oil) to biofuels (woodchips) has reduced emissions to the environment. Detailed report will be published on the Wood Energy and Cleantech project website, as soon as it is completed.

Jaanus Uiga

Energeetikapäev, Hiiumaa, Kärdla – 10. Mai 2012.a.

Elu võimalikkusest Hiiumaal ning potentsiaalsete tehnoloogiate teemal toimus energeetikapäev, kuhu kutsuti ka Energiaklassi esindaja Priit.

Teemade ring oli lai – alates lihtsatest kodumajapidamiste lahendustest kuni keerulisemate ventilatsiooni- ja küttetehnoloogiate tutvustamiseni.
Energiaklassi esindaja tegi ettekande koosnes kahest teemast, esimene teema käsitles Hiiumaa puiduvarusid juhul, kui kõik elanikud hakkaksid puiduga kütma ning ettekande teine osa oli energiaauditite teemal.

Väga huvitavad ettekanded oli veel seotud tuule- ja päikeseenergia kasutamisega kodumajapidamises ning elektrijalgratastest. Samuti alati väga hariv on kuulata ettekandeid soojuspumpade õige kasutamise ning soojaveekollektorite teemal.

Täpsema päevakava ja esinejad leiab alljärgnevalt lingilt:

Täname Haimarit ja Karinit Energiaklassi esindajat kutsumast!

Priit Pikk

Elva soojusvõrgu juhtumiuuringu keskkonnaanalüüs

Märtsi lõpus täitus esimene tähtaeg Woodenergy projekti raames teostataval Elva soojusvõrgu juhtumiuuringu keskkonnaalane uuringul. Töö teostajaks on Hendrikson & Co.

Vahetulemuste esitamise eesmärk oli analüüsida lähteülesandes püstitatud eesmärkide teostatavust ning anda ülevaade juba teostatud tööst.

Selgus, et esialgu planeeritud puiduhakke tootmise, transpordi ning põletamisel tekkivate CO2 heitkoguste arvutamine on arvatust keerulisem. Nimelt on Euroopa Liit küll töötanud välja vastava direktiivi, kirjeldades arvutusmetoodikat, kuid vastavalt MKM 2011 tehtud aruandele puuduvad Eestis seni uuringud, mis on vajalikud kogu olelusringi arvestava hindamise meetodi väljatöötamiseks Eesti tingimuste jaoks. Seetõttu saab järeldada, et biokütuste elutsükli kogu süsinikujälje arvutamiseks puudub Eesti jaoks kohandatud metoodika.

Mainitud probleemi lahendamisega tegeletakse aktiivselt ning kuivõrd antud töö raamidesse nii mahukad uuringud ei mahtunud, otsustati referentsina EU poolt antud baasväärtuste kõrval kasutada ka Eestis varem tehtud CO2 arvutusmetoodikaid.

Elvas kütusena kasutatavat biomassi tarnivad kolm ettevõtet, kelle sõnul kaugemalt kui 100…120 km hakkpuitu pole mõtet transportida. Keskmise kaugusena mainiti 50…70 km. Enamik kütusest pärineb Lõuna-Eestist, vähesel määral ka Põhja-Lätist.

Lisaks transpordi- ning tootmisprotsessidega seonduvate CO2 heitkoguste arvutamisele teostatakse ka põhjalik katlamajadest väljuvate heitkoguste arvutamine, andes planeeritavalt tulemusi referentsväärtustena, mida oleks võimalik üle kanda ka teiste regioonide hindamiseks.

Saasteainete heitkoguste arvutustes võrreldakse ka erinevaid stsenaariume, mis Energiaklassis majandusarvutuste jaoks välja töötati. Stsenaariumid baseeruvad tunnipõhistel katlamajade tootmisvõimsuste arvutustel ning eeldusel, et tulevikus soojusenergia tarbimine väheneb.

Tulevikustsenaariumid on keskendunud sobiva koostootmisjaama leidmisele ning selle tasuvusaja ning -tingimuste arvutamisele.

Jaanus Uiga

Elva keskküttesüsteemi juhtumiuuring

Projekti Wood Energy and Cleantech raames teostatakse Elva linna soojamajanduse juhtumiuuring. Uuringu eesmärgiks on anda põhjalik ülevaade ühe piirkonna puitkütusel baseeruva soojamajanduse arengust ning selle kasulikkusest ümbruskonnale ja ühiskonnale.

Lõpparuanne valmib Eesti Maaülikooli ja mitmete ekspertide koostöös. Lõpparuandes antakse ülevaade linna üldisest arengust, investeeringutest soojamajandusse, majanduslikest aspektidest, hetkeolukorrast ja tulevikuplaanidest.

Transnational meeting 24 – 25 jaanuar

The focus of the event was exchange of experiences on management level concerning management and planning of bio fuelled district heating and cogeneration plants. The Estonian and Latvian group visited four boilerplants in frame of the event.

The first visit and discussion was with the mangement of Eon Händelöverket about the Norrköping DH facilities on Jan 24. One of the most exotic things for the participants was the accumulation tank, because there are no such devices in Estonia and Latvia. The scale of the powerplant was for the visiters unusually big in comparison to the boilers with they have to work.

There were interesting discussions about management and planning process in DH for midterm and long term perspective. It was interesting to obtain a new experience and to discover another way of thinking. The question about DH companies’ form of the ownership is very actual, such us advantages or disadvantages for private or state owned companies. We can found differences between the DH companies’ policies of planning process. As we discovered the state owned DH companies are more interested in development of the full system of public utilities not only for profit in short time. Municipal companies are trying more focused on development of territory in long time perspective. Here we could see that there was established good cooperation between companies in this region (producing distric heat, ethanol, etc.).

At the fuel sorting

Accumulation tank

The other half of the day was at Mjölby Svartådalens Energi (MSE) District heating facilities. Meeting and discussion with management of MSE. Mjöllby was distinctive for Estonians because of the connection with the big neighbouring city Linköping. The fuel quality was also a interesting topic, because they use a boiler for woodchips with low moisture content.

Fuel feeding grasper

In the control unit

On the next day, January 25, was the visit to District heating production unit in Ödeshög, and meeting with Agrovärme management. The Swedish and Estonian specialists had a different approach what to take in account when calculating efficiency. This boiler house was quite similar to Latvian situation. We discovered that there is not economic feasibility to put flew gas condenser and its automatic control gives effectiveness for management of boiler house.

In the boilerplant building, 3,5MW boiler

Discussions about efficiency

The afternoon was planned at Tekiska verken Linköping AB. Meeting and discussion with Tekniska verken energy management and visiting the waste fueled CHP. The total heat power of the two blocks was 63MW and electrical power was 10MW. The amount of waste converted to energy is 400 000 tons per year.

Tekniska Verken

State of the art wast incineration

The waste incineration technology was interesting because there is also built a similar plant to Tallinn Estonia, that will burn 200 000 tons per year.

For Latvian partners it was really interesting, because we do not have so developed waste incineration technology at the moment. We had opportunity to look on waste management with a different way of thinking. In discussion phase we discovered that we can adapt this technology in smaller scale, for example 15MW plant. That could be the size of boiler to operate in VPR, but of course there is very important political willness to do that and we need to study economic feasibility and environmental issues. Not only politicians are involved, but also society and non-governmental authorities. It was surprizing that in Sweeden only 1% of waste is utilized in ground. Another great experience we had about Tekniska Verken development of system. They are combining all public utilities, such us, producing district heat, natural gas, waste management, water management and electricity.

I talked with waste company in Vidzeme “ZAOO” and they shoved interest to visit small scale waste boiler, for example 15MW plant. If we are talking about wood energy DH, there not big interest on small scale DH boilers, but it would be interesting to share experience in a small scale DH management (experience with private consumers of DH such as legal and administrative issues, networks of DH to link small parishes, composing of the prise of MW/h). These are impressions until now.

Energiaklass, SA Erametsakeskus ja Keskühistu Eramets

Eesti Maaülikooli Energiaklassi esindajad kohtusid SA Erametsakeskuse ja Keskühistu Eramets esindajatega, et arutada võimalikke koostöövõimalusi.

Energiaklassist olid esindatud prof. Andres Annuk, Wood Energy and Cleantech projektijuht Alo Allik ja Energiaklassi spetsialistid Maris Pütsepp ja Jaanus Uiga. Erametsakeskusest olid külla tulnud Jaanus Aun, Indrek Jakobson ning Ülo Kask ja Keskühistust Eramets Indrek Palm ja Tarmo Lees.

Kohtumise põhieesmärgiks oli  infopoolpäeva kava ja sisu arutelu, mis peaks toimuma veebruaris-märtsis.  Otsustai, et käsitlemisele tuleb terve ahel, alates raiest lõpetades kvaliteedi ja tasuvusega. Lisainfo kindlasti ilmub ka meie blogis ning kodulehel.

Kohtumise lõpus arutati lisaks infopoolpäevale ka võimaliku koostööprojekti idee üle. Võimalikeks taotluskohtadeks võiksid olla IEE ning EstLatRus programmid.