Science seminar Linköpingis

7. detsembril võtsid Eesti Maaülikooli õppejõud koos Energiaklassi spetsialisti Priit Pikaga osa Science seminarist Linköpingis. Lisaks Maaülikooli inimestele osalesid ka Rootsi ja Läti esindajad.

Väike kokkuvõte seminarist:
Baharm Mosfegh – Linköping University
Tegutsetakse erinevatel energiasüsteemide tasemel– lokaalsed, regionaalsed, etc.
Kaugküttesüsteemid
Kütte (ring)turg
Energiasüsteemid – CHP, biofuels, link
Louise Trygg
Focus – A system perspective on energy use and supply.
Reduce the use of electricity and increase the use of district heating.
Changing the energy use:
• Eff use of electricity
• Converting from electr to DH or other fuel
• Use of surplus heat
• Reduce use of el. If no production is going on
• Co-operation
Results of audits
• Reduced from energy audits – 55%
• Red use of oil- 40%
Increased use of DH
• Heatind
• Hot water
• Drying
• Cooling – absorption, we don’t buy a car without cooling. – the units right?
• Others
Production of electricity low in summer
Cooperation with industry and energy utility
TOOL: Optimization program of Dynamic Energy systems with Time-dependent components and boundary conditions
Industry – energy utility – reduced energy costs >40%
How to make the changes happen?
• Cost reduction
• Presence of engaged people
• Investment subsidies
• Long-term energy strategy
• Demand from the owner
• Environmental profit
Conclusion
• Make energy issues a vital part of agenda
• Full support from the management
• Management is much more important, then technology
• Do as the neighbor does
Funding for the projects
• Energy agency – 60-70%
• Winowa, some other companies
• SWE science foundation
• Industries – they also get the money straight back.
• SWE DH association
Solar PV – produce the electricity their own.

Linnaeus University – Växjö, Kalmar
Bioenergy department
• Thermochemical processing
• Microbial processing – biogas, storage of biogas fuels
• Upgrading – pellets, sawdust
• Emission control – NOx, CO2, mainly boilers
• Biomass resources and quality
• Fuels from the forestry department
Energy and environonment – web based distance cources
Projects
• 2nd generaton biogas – gasification
o Hot topic because there is target to reduce the CO2 emissions
o Making ethanol from cellulose has eff 15-20%
o Biomass->gasification->raw gas
o Price goes down to diesel if the plant size is very high
o In theory it is possible to use forest to produce all the energy SWE needs.
o New project in cooperation to 20 partners, 30MEUR, biogaasi asjad…
• 1st generation biofuels
o Well established, simple
o Cannot use wood
• Biomass boilers 1-20MW
o Project -Hot-gas characteration for optimisation Operation and Emission, EU funding.
• Energy from forest – new assortments and technologies
o Project about the chain analysis, supply, ashes, etc.
New pyrolisys plant is built because there is gas network.
Skogforsk – Isabelle Bergqvist
Project – Efficient Forest Fuel Supply systems, more energy for less bioenergy.
Available volumes of woody biomass
Stumps are not much used at the moment. Almost nothing
Also forest residues are used more, but there is still room for development.
Residues 2010
10,1 Mm3 loose, 8,TWh
Could be increased 11%
Logging residues
Target to use forwarding logs together with branches and tops.
Small trees – Could be used almost 5 times more, then nowadays. Pulp industry wants also more. If you take out small branches, then you have to introduce fertilizers.
 High output from trees

Trends
• Incr. Volumes
• Less simple felling heads
• High degree of accumulatin – machines to go through the forest
• Larger machines
• Energy thinning
• Compaction through rough declimbing
• Slightly larger trees
• Continuous felling accumulation
Stumps
0,7M3; 0,6TWh
Could be used 50 times more.
 Largest potential
 Easy storing
 Excel fuel properties
 No nutrient loss
 Low ecological value
 Difficult harvesting
 Soil contamination
 Bulkiness & handling
Stumps are supporting the ground and machines(arming)
FSC is strictly against the stumping.
Margins
Log wood are 50%, logging residues 40%, small trees 8%.
Costs increasing – mainly higher transport costs.
Cutting costs
Potential – small trees 15%, branches – 30%, stumps – 40%
Soil damage
Planning tool – Scanning the surface by plane. Several digital layers about damage, soil, etc.
Reducing impact to the soil because of humid parts or smth – drive shorter distance, lower slope, at first they take out lower part of areas.
Hillevi Eriksson, Skogtyrelsen
Drivers for bioenergy
Sulphur taxes, dev. Of DH
Large research programmes on bioenergy/ash recycling – Vattenfall and SWE forest agency.
Large scale programs have motivated for smaller programs, cooperation and debate.
1998 – Forestry Act mproved
No significant extra threat towards harvesting stems only
Reduction of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) + base caution status
Ash recycling ads ANC and base cations – no hardened and dose research -> mpact assessment -> regulation revision
Research and practice side by side: realistic experiments -> realistic answers.
Unnecessarry regulation can be avoided.
Katrin Heinsoo – Biomass from agriculture
Biogas
Short rotation coppice
Perennial crops
Ash as agricultural fertilizer. Already something investigated.
Mart Hovi
Argo Strantsov – Forestry Institute.
Latvia
Riga Technical Unicersity
Financing
EU, BSR, Nordic energy research, Norwegian funds
Project
• PEA project
• Plasma technology – innovative gas treatment project
• Compact –solar pellet investigation
• TRNSYS modeling
• System Dynamics Analysis – SD model
Cooperation with enterprises
• CEMEX
• BioVenta

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